Plural means that there’s more than one of something. In English, nouns are usually made plural by adding “-s” or “-es,” but there are some exceptions. You use the ending of a word to figure out which ending you should use. Here is a list of the rules:
Add “-s” to most words to make them plural, as in cookies, trees, and flowers.
If a word ends in a hissing sound (“-s”, “-z”-, “-x”, “-ch”, “-sh”), add “-es” to the word, as in kisses, matches, and crushes.
For words that end in a vowel plus “-y”, add “-s” to the word, as in boys, days, and trays.
For words that end in a consonant plus “-y,” change the “-y” to “-ie” and add “-s,” as in lilies, daddies, and babies.
For words that end in “-is,” change “-is” to “-es,” as in theses and oases.
Many words that end in “-f” or “-fe” have plurals that end in “-ves,” such as elves, wives, and shelves.
Words ending in “-o” may end with either “-s” or “-es.” If you don’t know, you should consult the dictionary.
The plurals of capital letters, abbreviations, and numbers get “-s,” without an apostrophe, as in ATMs, 7s, and CDs
As with nearly everything in English, there are exceptions to these rules. For example, the plural of “woman” is “women,” not “womans,” and the plural of “child” is “children,” not “childs.” This will get easier once you get used to reading and writing these words!
Hope this helps!
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